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West Virginia University Library 

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Bulletin 230 



March. 1930 



Growth Studies with Swine 



by J. II. LONGWELL, 
H. O. HENDERSON, and W. M. INSKO. Jr. 




.-»^' 



Pig Showing Typical Posterior Paralysis 
Developed un Basal Ration No. 2 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 
:OI.LEGE OF AGRICULTURE, WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY 
F. D. FROMME, Director 
MORGANTOWN 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION STAFF 

JOHN R. TURNER, Ph. D., LL. D President of the University 

F. D. FROMME, Ph. D Dean and Director 

GERALD JENNY, M. S Agricultural Editor 

JOHN C. JOHNSTON ; .Chief Clerk 



AGRONOMY AND GENETICS 
R. J. Garber, Ph. D. 

Agronomist and Geneticist 
E. P. Deatrick, Ph. D. 

Associate Agronomist 
W. H. Pierre, Ph. D. 

Associate Agronomist 
T. C. Mcllvaine, Ph. D.f 

Assistant Agronomist 

D. R. Dodd, B. S.,t 

Assistant Agronomist 

M. M. Hoover, M. S. 

Assistant Agronomist 
H. K. Rowley, M. S. Agr.** 

Seed A.nalyst 

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

E. A. Livesay, D. Sc. 

Animal Husbandman 
Chas. V. Wilson, M. S. 

Assistant Animal Husbandinan 
J. II. Longwell, M. A. 

Assistant Animal Husbandman 
J. H. Rietz, D. V. M. 

Associate Veterinarian 
R. H. Tuckwiller, B. S. Agr.* 

Assistant Animal Husbandman 
R. S. Glasscock, M. S.** 

Assistant in Veterinary Science 

CHEMISTRY 

R. B. Dustman, Ph. D. 

Agricultural Chemist 

Chas. B. AVeakley, Jr., B. A. 

Assistant Chemist 
L. P. Hansen, Ph. D. 

Assistant Chemist 

T. B. Leith, M. S.** 

Assistant Chemist 
Leland Shriver, B. S. Ch. E. 
Assistant in Agricultural Chemistry 

DAIRY HUSBANDRY 
H. O. Henderson, Ph. D. 

Dairy Husbandnian 

L. M. Thurston, Ph. D. 

Assistant Dairy Husbandman 

K. S. Morrow, M. S. 

Assistant Dairy Husbandman 
L. F. Sutton. B. S. Agr.t 

Assistant Dairy Husbandman 



ENTOMOLOGY 

L. M. Peairs, Ph. D. 



Entomologist 



W. E. Rumsey, B. S.** 

State Entomologist 
Edwin Gould, B. S. Agr. 

Assistant in Entomology 

FARM ECONOMICS 

A. J. Dadisman, Ph. D. 

Farm Economist 
F. D. Cornell, Jr., M. S. 

Assistant Farm Mechanician 
W. W. Armentrout, M. S. 

Assistant Farm Economist 
R. O. Stelzer, B. S. 

Assistant in Farm Economics 



HOME ECONOMICS 

Rachel H. Colwell, M. A. 

Home Economist 
Hazel C. Cameron, M. A. 

Research Specialist in Nutrition 

HORTICULTURE 

H. E. Knowlton, Ph. D. 

Horticulturist 
K. C. Westover, M. S. Agr. 

Assistant Plorticulturist 

F. W. Craig, M. S. Agr.** 

Assistant Horticulturist 
M. B. Hoffman. M. S. 

Assistant in Horticulture 

PI N. McCubbin, M. A. 

Assistant in Horticulture 

A. P. Dye, M. S. Agr. 

Assistant in Horticulture 

PLANT PATHOLOGY 

C. R. Orton, Ph. D. 

Plant Pathologist 

Anthony Berg, M. S. 

Associate Plant Pathologist 
L. PI. Leonian, Ph. D. 

Associate Plant Pathologist 
F. J. Schneiderhan, M. S. 

Associate Plant Pathologist 

E. C. Sherwood, M. S. 

Assistant Plant Pathologist 

POULTRY HUSBANDRY 
Horace Atwood, M. S. Agr. 

Poultry Husbandman 

T. B. Clark, B. S. Agr. 

Assistant in Poultry H'lsbnndry 



*Tn cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
tin charge of the Lakin Sub-Station, Lakin, W. Va. 

IResigned. February, 1930. , 

**Tn cooperation with the State Department of Agriculture. Chnrlpston, W. v a. 
tin charge of the Reymann Memorial Farms, Wardensville, W. Va. 



Growth Studies with Swine* 

by J. H. LONGWELL, H. O. HENDERSON, and W. M. INSKO, Jr.t 

THE EXPERIMENTS reported in this bulletin were undertaken 
with three objects in view: namely, to determine the effects of 
feeding butterfat ; to determine the effects of feeding margarine fats 
and oils; and to determine the effects of feeding a basal ration free 
from the kntn\n sources of the fat-soluble growth vitamin 
upon the growth and development of pigs. When this exper- 
iment was started in 1923 very little had been published concerning 
the existence of an antirachitic vitamin — vitamin D — which is also 
fat-soluble. Although jMellanby (1921) and McCollum and co-- 
workers (1L)22) had presented evidence of the existence of a 
calcium depositing substance in cod-li\'er oil and butterfat, and of its 
resistence to oxidation which destroyed vitamin A, very little con- 
firmatory evidence had been published. Later workers confirmed the 
existence of such a factor and so, in 1926, a new object was added to 
the experiment : namely, to determine the effect of adding butter and 
vegetable margarine to a known rachitic ration upon the growth and 
development of pigs. 

This bulletin is a preliminary report on studies begun in 1923 to 
determine the effect on the growth of pigs of adding butter, oleomar- 
garine, or vegetable margarine to a basal ration deficient in the fat- 
soluble, growth-promoting vitamin. Up to the present time the ef- 
fects of the fats upon growth have been measured by the rate and 
economy of gains made by the pigs, and by observation of the abnor- 
mal symptoms exhibited by those pigs suffering from dietary deficien- 
cies. In only one case was a post-mortem examination conducted and 
a physical examination made of the bones. 

Continued investigations on this project will include, in addition 
to the observations being made, a complete history of the fats used; 
a study of the ability of the fats to bring about recovery of pigs suffer- 
ing from avitaminosis; autopsies of all pigs tested; physical examin- 
ation of bones, including photographic records, hardness tests, and 
histological examinations ; and chemical studies, particularh' of the 
mineral content of the bones. 



*Submitteii for publication October, ll)2cS. 
tMr. Insko resigned July, 1927. 



The experimental work for 1923, 1925, and 1926 was under ihe 
direction of E. C. StillwelP and Warren Gifford.- It was supervised 
by E. A. Livesay" and E. L. Anthony.* W. N. McClung, herdsman, 
had charge of the feeding and weighing of the animals. The oxygen- 
ated cod-liver oil used was prepared by R. B, Dustman.^' All feed 
analyses were made by the department of agricultural chemistry of 
the Agricultural Experiment Station. 

GENERAL PLAN OF THE EXPERIMENTS 

All experiments reported in this bulletin were conducted in dry- 
lot during the summers of 1923, 1925, 1926, and 1927 by the depart- 
ments of animal husbandr}^ and dairy husbandry of the VVest Virginia 
University on the animal husbandry farm. 

The pigs were fed in clean metal troughs in the central hog barn 
and watered in the same troughs, which were thoroughly cleaned 
after each feeding. The animals had access to lots havnig concrete 
floors, except in 1923, when the runways were of earth. As the run- 
ways were in the open, the pigs were exposed to the sun, except in 
1927, when the pigs were conhned to the barn. The pens were kept 
as clean as possible in order that the experiments might be relatively 
free from any disturbing influences of unsanitary surroundings. 

. Two litters were used in each trial, the pigs of each litter being 
divided equally among the lots. The pigs were weaned at eight 
weeks of age and were started immediately on the trial, except in 
1925, when the pigs were ten weeks old when started. All of the pigs 
first were treated for internal parasites, then sprayed with crude oil 
to kill external parasites. All pigs were weighed individually at in- 
tervals of 14 days. 

In the original plan of the experiment the basal ration (No. 1) 
consisted of 5 parts of white corn, 4 parts of whole oats, and 1 part of 
a mixture of 3 parts of tankage and 1 part of linseed oilmeal. To this 
basal ration a mineral mixture was added at the rate of one ounce per 
day for each 100 pounds of live weight. The mineral mixture given 
in 1923 and 1925 consisted of 5 pounds of acid phosphate, 5 pounds 
of steamed bone meal, and 1 pound of salt. This mixture was altered 
in 1926 to 5 pounds of acid phosphate, 5 pounds of steamed bone meal, 
5 pounds of ground limestone, and 2 pounds of salt. 

As far as was known at the beginning of the experiment this 
basal ration was free from the fat-soluble growth vitamin. Steenbock 
and Boutwell (1920) showed that white corn contains no apprecialde 
amount of the fat-soluble growth vitamin, although yellow corn con- 
tains enough of this substance to allow growth at a normal rate. 
These experiments have been confirmed with hogs by Livesay and 



^Now at the Ontario Agricultural College. 
^Now at the University of Missouri. 
^Head of the department of animal husbandry. 

*Then head of the department of dairy husbandry; now at Michigan State 
College. 

^Head of the department of agricultural chemistry. 



Stilhvell (1927) of this Station. McCollum and Simmonds (1025) state 
that the grains (wheat, maize, and oats) are deficient in vitamin A. 

In 1926 the same basal ration was used as a check ration, and a 
new basal ration was included, composed of 300 pounds of white corn, 
100 pounds of buckwheat middlings, and 20 pounds of tankage. This 
Station had found that this ration promoted rapid growth for a limit- 
ed time but was quite deficient in vitamins A and D. 

The rations were fed at the rate of 4 pounds per 100 pounds of 
live weight in 1923. In 1925 and 1926, 5 pounds per 100 pounds of 
live weight were fed per day, and in 1927, 4^4 pounds per 100 pounds 
of live weight. 

All experiments were continued approximately 100 days. Photo- 
graphs of all lots were taken at the end of the feeding period. 

Comparison of Butter and Oleomargarine for Growing Pigs 

During the feeding trial of 1S)23 butter and oleomargarine were 
compared when added to the basal ration of white corn, oats, tank- 
age, and linseed oilmeal, which was fed to Lot I. One ounce of butter 
for each 100 pounds of live weight Avas added to the basal ration of 
Lot II. The same amount of oleomargarine was added to the basal 
ration of Lot III. 

The butter fed was a good grade of creamery butter that had 
been carefully stored to avoid aeration. No history of the feeds used 
in producing this butter was available. The oleomargarine,' o? the 
best grades, was composed of oleo oil, neutral oil, cottonseed oil, and 
milk. Oleo oil is produced from beef fat, more especially the caul and 
ruffle fat. Neutral oil is made from the leaf fat of the hog. The fats 
are emulsified in the milk, and after absorbing the milk flavor the 
j)roduct is chilled with water and worked in the same manner as but- 
ter, salt being added. 

Osborne and IMendel (1915) in experiments performed with rats 
found that when lard was the sole source of fat the animals grew nor- 
mally for about three months. If the same ration was continued 
there was a cessation of growth, decline in body Aveight, and ultimate 
death. If, howe\'er, butter or beef fat was added to the ration, normal 
growth was continued. The recovery when beef fat was fed after 
decline was not so marked as when butterfat was fed. The growth- 
promoting factors were found to be concentrated in the oil of the fat. 
Halliburton and Drummond (1917 ) as the result of a series of experi- 
ments performed with rats concluded: (1) The fat-soluble growth 
substance is present in beef fat and oleo oil and in margarines pre- 
pared on such a basis. These margarines are nutritively the equiva- 
lent of butter. (2) Cocoanut oil, cottonseed oil, arachis-oil, and hy- 
drogenated vegetalDle oils contain little or none of this accessory sub- 



■^A number of articles have been "written concerning- the relative food value 
of butter and margarine. The chief difficulty encountered in a study of these 
articles is tlie apparent looseness of application of the terms margarine and oleo- 
margarine. To avoid confusion the authors liave introduced the trials with oleo- 
margarine and vegetable oil margarine under separate sections. Tlie first section 
of this bulletin is concerned only v.ntli oleomargarine, or margarine containing- 
animal fats. 



stance; hence margarines prepared with a basis of these fats do not 
have a nutritive vakie equal to that of butter. (3) Nut butters pre- 
pared from crushed nuts and vegetable fats similarly are not equal 
to butter. 

In 1923, 15 Poland-China pigs were selected from two litters for 
the present experiment. One litter contained 6 pigs; the other, 9 pigs. 
Two pigs were selected from the former and three from the latter 
for each lot. The three lots were given a preliminary feed of four- 
teen days on the basal ration, then weighed and started on the ex- 
periment. 

Lot I received the original basal ration No. 1 and mineral mix- 
ture; Lot II, the basal ration, mineral mixture, and two ounces of 
butter per day for each 100 pounds of live weight; and Lot III, the 
basal ration, mineral mixture, and two ounces of oleomargarine per 
day for each 100 pounds of live weight. 

Table 1. — Individual and Total Lot Weights by Two-weelc Periods of Pigs in TJiree 
Lots in 1923 



Lots 




"Weig 


'hts at Two-week Intervals (Pounds) 




July 7 9 

44 
A'i 
28 
26 
30 


Au^2 


Aug-. IG 


Aug-. 30 


Sept. 13 

S7 
85 
58 
50 
50 


Sept. 27 


Oct. 11 


Oct. 25 


I 
No. 1 


52 
54 
31 
27 
33 


60 
61 
39 
34 
34 


74 
73 
46 
41 
44 


103 

101 

70 

G? 

Hi 


119 

117 
83 
72 
76 


137 


No. 2 


130 


No. 3 

No. 4 


91 
84 
92 






Total 


176 


197 


228 


278 


330 


400 


467 


531 


No. 1 


37 
50 
32 
30 
26 


47 

35 
2S 


51 
67 
14 

39 • 
33 


64 

SI 
5 3 
f8 

42 


100 
63 
59 
50 

347 


121 

1:1 

66 


112 

138 
94 
.30 
SO 


129 


rSTo 2 


153 


No. 3 

N.-). 4 


107 


No. :-) 


93 


Total 


175 


202 


234 


2SS 


434 


514 


593 


Ill 

No. ] 

No. 2 

No. 3 

No. 4 

No. 5 


44 
48 
28 
25 
32 


49 
58 
34 
32 
32 


58 
1^2 
37 
36 
41 


70 
74 
43 
1 7 
49 


77 
85 
5 
56 
62 


'J 5 
105 
60 
69 
79 


112 

122 

68 

82 

92 


126 
139 

8 4 

9 3 

1 08 ' 






Total 


177 


205 


234 


283 


330 


408 


476 


550 



The increase in weight as found in Lots II and III was not suf- 
ficient to pay for the butter and oleomargarine used in feeding, tlow- 
ever, as shown in Table 2, the total feed for each 100 pounds of gain 
was less in the case of the butter lot than in the oleomargarine and 
check lots. The lot fed oleomargarine required less feed for each 
100 pounds of gain than the check lot. The total feed tor each 100 
pounds of gain was 396 pounds for Lot I, fed the basal ration; 364 
pounds for Lot II, receiving the basal ration and butter, and 385 
pounds for Lot III, fed the basal ration and oleomargarine. 

The total gains of the three lots were 358 pounds for Lot I, 418 
pounds for Lot II, and 373 pounds for Lot III. While Lots II and 
III showed slightly greater gains tl.c.n Lot 1, such gams c:.n be at- 
tributed largely to the energy value of the fats added to the rations. 



Since there were hut 5 p'nxs per lot, little importance can be attached 
to the differences in rate and economy of gains between the various 
lots. 

The analysis of feeds fed is shown in Table 3. 

Figure 1 shows that the gains of the lots were uniform through- 
out the feeding period. This graph is based on the total lot weights 
given in Table 1. The butter lot gained more than either of the other 
lots. However, the increase over the oleomargarine lot was only 43 
pounds, and the oleomargarine lot weighed only 16 pounds more than 
the check lot at tlie final weighing. Even though there was a gain 



eoo 



550 



500 



4.50 



% 



f^ 

■^ 
> 

i 



400 



550 



^300 



Z50 



200 






Lof-I 



^0,^0. / r'a. f/oti 



Lof 5 — Ba.sa/ rat/on + oUofnar^ar/ne ^t / 



/ / 




1yl9 'AucfZ 
!SZ3 



16 20 Sepi/3 

Ftqurel 



27 



Oar. J/ 25 



Figure 1. — Growth Curves Basod on Total Lot "WoiLihts as Gi\eii m Table 1 



over the check ration in each of the lots to which fat was added, the 
increase was little more than would be expected to result from the 
energy contained in the fats added to these rations. 

Table 2. — Feed and Weight Becords of Pigs in Three Lots in 19SS 





Rations Fed 




Lot I 


Lot II 


Lot III 


Item 


Basal Ration* 

and Mineral 

Mixturet 


Basal Ration, 

Mineral Alixture, 

and 1 oz. Butter 

per 100 I'ounds 

Daily 


Basal Ration, 
Mineral Mixture, 
and 1 oz. Oleo- 
margarine per 
100 Pounds 
Daily 


Number of days on feed 

Number of pig's per lot 

Total g-ain per lot (ponndu) .... 
Averag-e initial weight per pig^ 
Average final v/eiglit per pig. . 
Average daily gain per pig. . . 
Total feed per 100 pounds gain 


98 

5 

358 

35.2 
106.8 

n.73 
396.1 


98 

5 

418 

35.0 
IIS.B 

0.85 
364.0 


98 

5 

373 

35.1 
110.0 

0.70 
385.2 



*Basal ration — white corn, 5 parts; oats, 4 parts; tankage (3) and linseed oil- 
meal (1), 1 part. 

tMineral mixture — acid phospate, 5 pounds; steamed bone meal, 5 pounds; and 
salt, 1 pound. 




Figure 2. — Lot I, fed basal ration and mineral mixture ( 1!i-.''.) 



Table ?j,.-^ Analysis of Feeds Fed in 1923 









Nutrlenis (Pcrrfi\ 


t \ 




Feed 


Water 


Ash 


Crude 
Protein 


Carboh 


ydrates 






Fiber 


N-free 
"Extract 


Fat 


White Corn . . . 
Oats* 


10.41 
i).20 
9.50 
7.06 


1.41 

3.50 

20.17 

5.18 


9.00 
12.40 
5S.31 
31.47 


1.96 
10.96 

1.46 
14.18 


72.78 
59.00 

4.^;o 

3 5.50 


3.S4 
4 40 


Tankage 

Linseed oilmeal 


5.56 
0.61 



"Analysis of oals from Henry and Morrison, Feeds and Feeding. 



8 




Figure .3. — Lot II, fed Ijasal ration, mineral niixtuix'. and Ijutter (1923) 

Fig-ures -, 3, and 4 show the appearance of the lots at the end of 
the feeding j^eriod. As may l^e observed, Lot II had sHghtly more 
finish and was st^mewhat smoother as well as lightly heavier. Lot 
III also was smotjthly covered and carried more finish than Lot I. 
Lot I, which received the basal ration, carried less finish than the 
other two lots although all lots were uniform in weight. 

In conclusion it may be said that when butter or oleomargarine 
was added to a basal ration of white corn, oats, linseed oilmeal, and 
tankage there was a little increase in weight, due to the added fat or 
added fat-soluble growth vitamin. The increase was slight, however, 
and was in favor of the lot receiving butter. This result with pigs 
substantiates the work with rats as done by Osborne and Mendel 
(1915) and by Halliburton and Drummond (1917). 




Figure 4. — Lot III, fed basal ration, mineral mixture, and oleomargarine (1923) 



Comparison of Butter and Vegetable Margarine (First Trial) 

During the feeding trials of 1925 and 1926 butter and vegetable 
margarine were compared when added to the basal ration. In 1925 
the basal ration was the same as in 1923. 

Lot I received the basal ration and mineral mixture; Lot II re- 
ceived the basal ration, mineral mixture, and 2 ounces of butter for 
each 100 pounds of live weight daily; and Lot III received the basal 
ration, mineral mixture, and 2 ounces of vegetable margarine^ for 
each one hundred pounds of live weight daily. 



Table 4. — Individual and Total Lot Weights hy Two-ioeek Periods of Figs in Three 
Lots in 19£5 



Lots 




Weig-hts at Two-wee 


k Intervals {L'ou 


tfZs j 




Tune 25 

50 
40 
46 
46 
53 


July S 


July 22 


Aug. 5 


Ausr. 19 


Sept. 2 

111 
120 
114 
104 
]30 


Sept. 16 


Sept. 30 


I 
No. 1 


5S 
45 
58 
5S 
66 


70 
60 
66 
66 

TS 


N9 

73 
St 
S9 
91 


IfiO 
90 

ys 

92 
111) 


146 

134 
12S 
124 
154 


164 


No. 2 


116 


No. :! 

No. 4 


146 
144 


No. Z, 


170 


Total 


235 


'JS5 


340 


426 


490 


579 


686 


770 


II 
No. 1 


48 
44 

52 
40 

48 


61 

5S 
64 
50 
G4 


76 
64 
76 

57 
73 


94 

75 
92 
73 
93 


112 
91 

S7 
113 


135 

10.S 
132 
10 4 
133 


160 
130 
160 
130 
160 


192 


No. 2 


144 


No. :; 

No. 4 


ISO 

145 


No. 5 . 


185 


Total 


232 


294 


351 


427 


516 


612 


740 


846 


Ill 
No. 1 


51 
43 
42 
50 
49 


65 

50 
50 
6^ 
6G 


76 
61 
5 6 
75 
7S 


91 

73 
68 
6S 
94 


105 

90 

70 

116 

114 


123 

lOf; 

136 


148 
126 
110 
155 
16 5 


166 


No. 2 


150 ' 


No. 3 


131 


No. 1 


173 


No. 5 


182 


Total ... 


235 


295 


346 


42 i 


50 5 


590 


704 


■^02 



The work of Halliburton and Drummond (1917) showed that 
margarines prepared with a basis of cocoanut oil, cottonseed oil, and 
hydrogenated vegetable oils are not equal in nutritive value to butter. 

Sixteen pigs from two litters were used in the 1926 experiment. 
Four pigs were placed in each lot. As seen in B'^igure 6 and Table 7, 
there was very little variation in the weights of the four lots at the 
beginning of the experiment. One pig in Lot II died before the end 
of the feeding trial. 

in the trial in 1925 as shown in Table 4, Lot II, which received 
butter in addition to the basal ration, gained more than either Lot I 
or Lot III. Lot III, receiving the vegetable margarine in addition to 
the basal ration, gained more than Lot I, which received only the 
basal ration. 



sNut or vegetable margarine is made in much tlie same manner as oleomar- 
garine. The ingredients are cocoanut fat, cottonseed, and other vegetable oils. 
These fats are emulsified with milk. They are then chilled witli cold water and 
worked in the same manner as oleomargarine. Salt is added. 

10 



'J'lic turxcs in I<'iqiirc 5 show that the ,^ains in all lots were uni- 
form and, considering;- the sreater energy intake in Lots IT and IIT, 
practically ecjiial. 

As shown in Table 5, the lot receiving- the butter required the 
smallest number of pounds of feed for each 100 pounds of gain. This 
lot required 3S7.3 pounds, while Lot III required 409.7 pounds, and 
Lot I, 414.6 pounds. As with the 1923 trial, the differences in rate 
and economy of gains ma>' be credited principally to the greater 
energy intake in the lots receiving fat. The analysis of feeds fed in 
1925 is given in Table 6. 

S75 



825 
775 

725 
G25 



I 



^3 575 
^ 325 



425 
575 
525 
275 
225 









/ 








/ 




LofJ — 




- Basa./ ration y- 6utier / // 




LofZ - 


. — 


_ 


Lof5 - 


— 


-Sols ei/ fcu ^/on -f- / / / 

' // 








— 






■'/ 


— 






/ 


— 






f 








/ 











— 






/ 




^ 


X^ 






^ 






/ 


1 


\ 


1 I 1 I 



<J'ur?e25 Uci/yS 

/szs 



ZZ AuyS 19 



Sepf.2 16 



30 



Figure o. — Growth Curves Based on Total Lot Weiahts as Given in Table 4 



11 



Comparison of Butter and Vegetable Margarine (Second Trial) 

Since the trials of 1923 and 1925 had shown only slight differ- 
ences in the rate of gains and in the economy of gains between the 
lots fed the check rations and those fed the check rations plus butter, 
or plus oleomargarine, or plus vegetable margarine, it was decided 
to substitute a new basal ration in 1926. During the winter feeding 
trials reported by Livesay and Stiilwell (1926) pigs receiving a ration 
of white corn, buckwheat middlings, and tankage developed rickets, 
going down on the seventieth day of the feeding trial. These pigs, 
however, made good gains and cjuickly recovered when fed either un- 
treated or oxygenated cod-liver oil. The treated oil was prepared ac- 
cording to the directions of McCollum and Simmonds (1925). 

With the purpose of obtaining data on the existence of the anti- 
rachitic vitamin (vitamin D) in butter and vegetable margarine, the 
winter basal ration was substituted for the basal ration used in the 
two previous summers. This new ration (Basal Ration No. 2) was 
composed of white corn, 300 pounds; buckwheat middlings, 100 
pounds; tankage, 20 pounds; and a mineral mixture composed of 5 
pounds of steamed bonemeal, 5 pounds of ground limestone, 5 pounds 
of acid phosphate, and 2 pounds of salt. 

Lot I received the original basal ration of white corn, oats, hii- 
seed oilmeal, and tankage, plus the mineral mixture. Lot II received 
the new basal ration and the mineral mixture. Lot III received the 
new basal ration, mineral mixture, and 2 ounces of butter for each 
100 pounds of live weight daily. Lot IV received the new basal 
Table 5. — Feed and Weight Becords of Pigs in Three Lots in 19 S5 







Rations Fed 






l.ot I 


r.ot IT 


Lot III 


Item 


Basal Ration* 

and Mineral 

Mixture 


Basn.l Ration, 

aiineral Mixture, 

and 2 oz. Butter 

per 100 Pounds 

Daily 


T?asal Ration, 
Mineral Mixtui'e, 

and 2 07.. Veg- 
etable Margar- 
ine per 100 

Pounds Daily 


Numbers of days on feed 

Number of pigs per lot 

Total g-ain per lot {fiounds } , . . . 
Average initial weight per pig 
Average final weight per pig. . 
Avei'age gain per pig 


9S 

47.0 
15 4.0 
107.0 

1.09 
4j4.6 


98 

i") 

G14 

46.4 
169.2 

i.2.5 
3^7. ;i 


9S 

.5 

567 

47.0 
160.4 
•■13.4 


Average daily gain per pig... 
Total feed per 100 pounds gain 


1.16 
409.7 



*Basal ration — white corn, 5 parts; oats, 4 parts; tankage (3) and linseed oil- 
meal (1), 1 part. 

Table 6. — Analysis of Feeds Fed in 1925 





Nutrients (Percent) 


Feed 


Water 


Ash 


Crude 
Protein 


Carboliydrates 






Fiber 


N-free 
Kxtraot 


I^^it 


White corn 

Oats 


13.21 
8.36 
7.71 
8. S3 


1.25 

3.27 

21.60 

5.31 


S.:;3 

10.09 
59.36 
34.10 


2.4 9 

11.17 

1.20 

8.44 


71.79 

62.28 

2 33 

37125 


2.93 
4.83 


Tankage 

Tjinseed oilmoal . 


7.80 
6.07 



12 



ration, mineral mixture, and 2 ounces of vegetable margarine for each 
100 pounds of live weight daily. 

Since pig No. 3 in Lot TI died on the 89th day of the feeding trial, 
the average consumption of feed for each 100 pounds of gain was cal- 
culated on the nearest weigh day. This Avas the 84th day of the trial. 
As shown in Table 8, Lot 1 consumed 340 pounds per 100 pounds of 
gain; Lot II, 334 pounds; Lot III. 330 pounds; and Lot IV, 340 
pounds. The differences in rate and economy of gains are not im- 
l)()rtant. The weights for the succeeding weigh periods are given in 
Table 7. 



800 
750 
70C 
650 
GOO 
^50 
^500 



Lof 1 

Lot Z 

_ Lof 3 

Lof4' 



^ 



// 



— Bixsa./ rat /'on nu»f 6erZ 

_J>' Sutter 
/ ve^etciS/e fTiaraar/^e 



/ 




/ 



/ 



i 



// 



M^ 



350 
300 

250 

ZOO 

I50 
^uneJI 25 ^ulyQ 23 -Au^G ZO SepfS 17 Ocf.l 15 

Figure G. — Growtli Curves Based on Total Lot Weights as Given in Table 7 

13 



.^ 




Figure 7. — Lot I^ Fed Basal Ration No. 1 Figure S. — Lot II, Fed Basal Eation 
and Mineral Mixture (1926) No. 2 and Mineral MLxture (1926) 



Table 7. — Individual and Total Lot Weiglits by Two-iveelc Periods of Pigs in Fov.r 
Lots in 1926 









Weig-hts at Two-week Int 


ervals 


f Pound f 


] 




Lots 


June 


.Tune 


July 


July 


Ana-. 


Aug-. 


Sept. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Oct. 




11 


25 


:) 


23 





20 


3 


17 


1 


!.■> 


I 
No. 1 


44 


rjO 


66 


SO 


95 


10S 


158 


137 


ISO 


190 


No. 2 


. 48 


54 


68 


SO 


96 


110 


150 


132 


ICO 


1S6 


No. ;'. 


3S 


4 6 


60 


7 4 


SS 


10/ 


141 


119 


154 


J7S 


No. 4 


21 


26 


52 


60 


74 


84 


139 


104 


150 


176 


Total 


154 


ITS 


246 


2 'J 4 


354 


404 


492 


5S8 


650 


730 


II 






















No. 1 


52 


58 


68 


SO 


94 


112 


137 


172 


186 


210 


No. 2 


32 


3S 


5 2 


6 2 


76 


94 


1 10 


128 


158 


180 


No. :i 


4 


46 


60 


72 


90 


104 


129 


rliod Septem 


Der S 


No. 4 


34 


44 


54 


66 


82 


90 


115 


140 


146 


168 


Total 


J58 


186 


2c;4 


280 


342 


400 


497 


440 


430 


554 


Ill 






















No. 1 


54 


5S 


76 


90 


108 


124 


J 58 


181 


20 4 


230 


No. 2 


:{8 


44 


5^* 


68 


84 


98 


118 


145 


168 


1S8 


No. ?. 


30 


?;8 


4 8 


5 8 


76 


92 


114 


140 


156 


184 


No. 4 


34 


42 


54 


08 


84 


96 


122 


154 


166 


ISO 


Total 


156 


1S2 


230 


284 


352 


410 


510 


620 


694 


788 


IV 






















No. 1 


52 


.^6 


6 


72 


102 


S4 


lis 


158 


172 


200 


No. 3 


40 


5 6 


fiS 


S2 


122 


luO 


152 


172 


196 


22A 


No. S 


30 


40 


5 2 


66 


98 


82 


116 


i:;i> 


14 4 


160 


Xo. 4 


34 


44 


64 


SO 


114 


104 


140 


162 


174 


200 


Total 


162 


1'J6 


244 


300 


370 


■136 


526 


6 22 


686 


784 




Figure 9.— Lot III, Fed Basal 
No. 2, Mineral Mixture, and 
(1926) 



Eation 
Butter 



14 



Figure 10.— Lot IV, Fed Basal Ea- 
tion No. 2, Mineral Mixture, and 
Vegetable Margarine (1926) 



The analysis of feeds fed in 1926 is given in Table 9. 

The lots at the final weigh period are shown in Figures 7 to 10 
inclusive. Lots HI and IV were more uniform and smoother than 
Lots 1 and II. However, all lots were in good condition and brought 
an excellent price on the market. Pig No. 3 of Lot II was given a 
])ost-mortem examination with the results as shown in Figures 12 to 
16, inclusive. 




Figure 11. — A i^ig from Lot II showing postcvior xjiiralysis (1926) 



As shown in Table 8, two pigs from Lot II and two pigs from 
Lot IV developed rickets, going down on the 86th day. Since rickets 
had developed in the lots receiving the new basal ration during the 
preceding winter feeding trials, this development was expected in 
Lot II. On the 81st day, signs of the approaching trouble were first 
noticed in the two lots. The symptoms were nervousness, drooping 
ears, failure to eat, reddening of eyes, and wobl^ly gait. Although 
the eye trouble was not uniform, in one case it approached blindness. 
On the 86th day two pigs of each lot went down, unable to rise. 

The pigs of Lot II were given untreated cod-liver oil and those 
of Lot IV oxygenated cod-liver oil at the rate of 25 c. c. for each 100 
pounds of live weight daily. One pig of Lot II failed to recover, dy- 
ing on the S9th day. The other pigs recovered ; the three which had 
collapsed were on their feet fourteen days after they went down and 
were in good condition twenty-six days after the treatment began. 

Although post-mortem examination showed the lack of calci- 
fication of the ribs and femur, as well as vertebral fracture, the ex- 
ternal condition was most noticeable as posterior paralysis. As shown 
in Figure 11 and on the cover, the animal lost control of the hind 
quarters and was unable to stand. The direct cause of this trouble 
was the fracture of the fifth vertebra of the loin or lumbar region. 
This vertebra pressed upon the spinal cord (Figures 12 to 14), thus 
causing deadening or paralysis of the nerves controlling the inove- 
ment of the rear portion of the body. 

Post-mortem examination showed that the ribs were beaded. The 
femurs showed porous areas, and both ribs and femurs showed areas 

15 






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16 



of fresh calcification at the tips. fFig-ures 15 and 16). This examin- 
ation would lead to the belief that the pathological condition was due 
to the lack of vitamin D, since there was present in the minera' mix- 
ture sufficient bone-producing substance, which apparently was not 
assimilated. 




Figure 13. — A portion of the side shown in the previous figure. Note the fracture of 
the lumbar vertebra and the beading of the ribs due to the failure to assimilate 
the mineral of the ration 



Table 9. — Analysis of Feeds Fed in 1926 





Nutrients (Percent) 


Feed 


AVater 


Ash 


C'lrbob 


ydrates 


N-r'ree 
Extract 




Crude 
Pioteii) 


Filjer 


Fat 


WhitP Cora 


7.6 3 
7.G1 

P. 73 


].43 
2.51 
20.2:1 
4.57 
2. St 


8.67 
11.33 
50. 4n 
S.i.S:> 
22. 9S 


2.56 
11.63 

2.00 


72.15 
62.10 
12.^0 
3S.j3 
53.18 


3.50 


O:\tS 


4. SO 


Ta ri Iv.'i '-if 


7.31 


I-inseeil oiliiienl 

r.-ir>!x-\vlip:! t iiiirlrlling-s. . 


5.5S 
5.20 



\. 




Figure 14. — The fractured lumbar vertebra causing posterior paralysis. Tlie pig 
from which this backbone was taken had recei\cd a ration of white corn, buck- 
wheat middlmgs, and tankage, with a mineral mixture 

17 



Since there was no evidence of lack of assimilation of bone- 
producing- materials in Lot III, which received butter, it is apparent 
that over a period of 126 days there is present enough vitamin D in 
butter to prevent rickets. The basal ration consisting of white corn, 
buckwheat middlings, and tankage contained very little, if any, vita- 
min D, and therefore Lot II, receiving this ration, developed rickets. 
Lot IV, receiving vegetable margarine in addition to the basal ration, 
also developed rickets. This lot was returned to normal by the use 
of oxygenated cod-liver oil. 

Lot I, receiving a ration of white corn, oats, linseed oilmeal, and 
tankage, did not develop rickets. This result supports previous work 
at this Station which indicates that oats in the ration will prevent 
rickets during a limited feeding period. This work is being continued 
to determine more definitely the anti-rachitic properties of whole oats. 

Comparison o£ Butter, Oleomargarine, and Nut Margarine 

Before 1927 no more than two of the fats in question had been 
compared at one time. In the trial for this year, therefore, ail three 
were fed. 

Conditions of feeding were similar to those in previous years 
except that all pigs were fed inside the barn and were not exposed to 
sunlight at any time during the trial. 





.?,"«?•«/ - 




FiorRr: 15. — Scrtions of a foTP.nr from a |i\"; afPeeted with rid'PtB. Note the areas of 
poor caleifieatiou 



18 



Table 10. — Summary of Feed avd Weiriht JReeords of I ifjs in Four Lots in 19. 



Ttoin 



Numhor of pi^'s 

Total initial weight (lov.uils) 

Tot-il finnl weisrht 

Total sain 

Averag-o initial wei^^'ht 

Averaf?e final weight 

Averasre .a.-ain 

Number of days on experiment 

Averaa-e daily ,!?ain 

Feed Oonpiimed 

White corn fr omuls } 

Buckwheat middliim's 

Tankase 

Lard 

Butter 

Oleomargrarine 

Nut marg-arine 

Mineral 

Total 

Feed consumed per 100 pounds g\ain 

AVliiie cofn 

Buckwheat middling's 

Tankage 

I/ird 

Oleoma rgar'ne 

Nut marg-arine 

Butter 

Mineral 

Total 

Pig-s sho\yin2r eye trouble, nervousness, 

and labored breathinar 

Pig-s showing- incoordination and par- 
alysis 

Pi9-=: dving- 



Di\-ision of I'if^s 



Lot I 



ir.T 

I' 5 ;! 
6SG 
41. S 

21 ■■!.;'. 

171.5 
127 
1.35 

l.SOl.S 

i;2i.6 

124.:? 

74.4 



S7.2 



■TI.SO 
90.6 

10.8 



]9.7 
404.1 



Lot II 



4 
IPl 
?2L 
757 

41.0 
2:^0.3 
ISO.c-. 
127 

1.49 

ISfil.O 
621.4 
124.3 

so.r, 



S9.G 
27SS.9 

246.20 
f;2.1 
16.4 



11.6 
11.6 
367. S 



Lot ill 


Lot IV 


i 


4 


166 


16G 


•:-\;Fi 


830 


702 


C(U 


41.5 


41.5 


217.0 


207.5 


.175.5 


166.0 


127 


127 


L38 


1.30 


1S24.5 


173.8.5 


G0s;.2 


579.5 


121.6 


116.3 


S5.5 






83.1 


S5.5 


82.1 


2725.3 


2598.1 


25;). 90 


261.80 


86.6 


87.3 


17.3 


17.5 


12.2 






12.4 


12 2 


12.4 


£.S.S.2 


391.2 





4 





2 





1 



The pigs in each lot received the same basal ration, consisting' of 
300 pounds of white corn, 100 pounds of luickwheat middlings, and 20 
pounds of tankage. The pigs were weighed every two weeks and 
were fed this mixture at the rate of 4.5 pounds of feed for each 100 
pounds of live weight, the daily amount remaining constant until ihe 
next weigh day. The pigs were fed twice daily. Toward the end of 
the experiment the pigs failed to clean up this amount of feed, so that 
the ration was reduced to 4 percent of the live Aveight. This was true 
in the case of the normal pigs as well as those showing symptoms of 
avitaminosis. All lots received a mineral mixture at the rate of 2 
ounces for each 100 pounds of live weight daily. 

Lot I, the check lot, received enough lard to maintain the energy 
intake on the same level as in the other lots. The lard used was liigh- 
quality open-kettle-rendered leaf lard. Work by Osborne and Men- 
del (1915) indicates that lard contains little or no vitamin A or D. 
Lot II received 2 ounces of butter; Lot III, 2 ounces of oleomar- 
garine; and Lot IV, 2 ounces of vegetable margarine for each 100 
pounds of live weight daily. 

Two litters of pigs were employed, one litter being purebred 
Berkshires and the other being sired by a Berkshire boar and ont of 
a Duroc-Tersev sow. It was necessary to use nine of the cross-breds 



19 



and seven purebreds, making- three cross-breds and one purebred, 
in Lot II. The pigs were all of the same age, about ten weeks old 
when put on feed. 

Table 10 gives a summary of the feed and weight records. These 
pigs went for a longer period than any previous group before show- 
ing- any symptoms of avitaminosis. The rate of gains was quite sat- 
isfactory in all lots. Table 11 gives individual weights by two-week 
periods for the 16 pigs. Figure 17 shows the total lot weights of 
these pigs. 

Tables 10 and 11 show that all lots received adequate amounts 
of energy to make satisfactory gains. As in previous trials, the small 




Figure 16. — Sections of ribs from a pig affected witli rickets. Xote the areas of 
porous bone, the thickciringr of the rib on the riglit, and the area of fi-esli caJei- 
fication at the end of the bone 



number of pigs does not justify any comparison of the vslue of the 
rations as measured by gains on pigs or by amounts of feed per unit 
of gain. 

On November 18 the pigs in Lots I and IV began to leave feed 
in their troughs. They were fed night and morning, but some feed 
remained in the troughs 4 or 5 hours before being eaten. Lots EI and 
III cleaned up their feed within 15 minutes. On December 1 the pigs 
in Lot I were in poor condition, had poor appetites, were sluggish, 
and had dull hair. Pig "3XS'' of this lot was ni especially bad condi- 
tion, the eyes being red and watery, in addition to the other symptoms 
mentioned. On December 8 pig "3XS," Lot I, and pig "IXS," Lot 

.20 





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IV, had badly inflamed eyes, walked with an uncertain, staggering 
gait in the hind quarters, and were quite nervous. Lots II and III 
were in good thrifty condition on this date. 

The pigs were removed from experiment on December 15. At 
this time all pigs in Lots I and IV showed inflammation of the eyes 
and lack of co-ordination in hind quarters, and were very nervous 
and restless. Pigs "lOXS," Lot I, and "IXS," Lot IV, were especially 



950 
900 
850 
800 
750 
TOO 

■^e50 



Lof 1 

Lot- Z 

Lot 3 

Lof 4- 



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^u^/I 25 3epf.8 22 Ocf.6 20 Nov.3 17 I>ec.J 15 

/d^7 Figure 17 

Figure 17.— Growth Curves Based on Total Lot Weights as Given in Table 31 



As seen in Figure 17, g-ains were rapid and uniform in all lots until December 
1, when Lot I and Lot IV began to go dow^n. 

22 



affected. "OR IV' and "3RB," Lot IV, were quite restless and affected 
with short, lahorccf, con\'ulsive l)reathing-. "3BI>" had attacks of i^ar- 
tial paral\'sis and at times was unal)le to rise. All ])ig's in Lots II and 
ill were thrifty and gaining well. 

Ininu'diatcly after l)eing removed from the experiment each pig 
in Lois I and IV was given a tables])oonful of oxygenated cod-liver 
oil. the dose being repeated each morning and evening and the ration 
being kept the same. On December 18 "3P>1j," Lot IV, died. All the 
other pigs showed immediate and marked improvement in co-ordina- 
tion. The eyes, however, still remained sore, and the pigs suffering 
from diflicult breathing showed no improvement. On December 19 
yellow corn was substituted for the white corn of the ration, and un- 
treated cod-liver oil was given. All pigs showed marked improve- 
ment and were apparently normal on December 29. 



SUMMARY 

Four years' work in comparing butter, oleomargarine, and veg- 
etable oil margarine as sources of fat-soluble vitamin for pigs are re- 
ported. 

In 1923 three lots of pigs received a basal ration of white corn, 
oats, tankage, and linseed oilmeal. To the ration of Lot II was added 
one ounce of butter for each 100 pounds of live weight, and to the 
l:)asal ration of Lot III was added one ounce of oleomargarine for each 
100 pounds of live weight. During the feeding period of 98 days the 
pigs of Lots II and III gained slightly more than Lot I, the check lot, 
liut the difference was not great enough to be considered important. 

In 1925 similar results were obtained by feeding the same basal 
ration, but using vegetable oil margarine in place of oleomargarine 
in Lot III. 

Pigs receiving a ration of white corn, buci:.wheat middlings, and 
tankage in the 1926 trial developed rickets, two animals eoing down 
on the 86th day. One animal died and was examined. The examin- 
ation showed a fractured lumbar vertebra, beading of the ribs, and 
abnormal calcification of the femurs. Oxygenated cod-liver oil 
brought about recovery. One of the pigs r<=ceiving untreated cod- 
liver oil died. The lot receiving the basal ration plus butter showed 
no symptoms of rickets during the 126-day feeding neriod. The check 
lot, Avhich received white corn, oats, tankage, and linseed oilmeal did 
not develop rickets. 

Four lots of pigs received the known rach'tic ration of white corn, 
buckwheat middlings, and tankage in the 1927 trial. Lot II received 
2 ounces of butter per 100 pounds of live weight daily; Lot III, two 
ounces of oleomargarine; Lot IV, two ounces of vegetable oil mar- 
garine; and Lot I, sufffcient lard to maintain the energy intake on the 

23 



same level as that of the other three lots. Lot I, receiving the lard, 
and Lot IV, receiving the vegetable oil margarine, developed symp- 
toms of vitamin A and D deficiency in 100 to 110 days, fiutter and 
oleomargarine appeared to be equally effective in preventing the 
trouble for a period of 126 days. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Halliburton, W. D., and Drummond, J. C. 

1917. The nutritive value of margarine and butter substitutes •with 
reference to their content of the fat-soluble accessory growth sub- 
STANCE. Jour. Physiol. 51, 235. 

Lr^ESAY, E. A., and Stillwell, E. C. 

1926. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ADDITION OF OATS TO A WHITE CORN RATION IN 

GROWING AND FATTENING PIGS. Proc. Amer. Soc. An. Prod. 



1927. COMPARATIVE TESTS OF CERTAIN FEEDS IN RATIONS FOR PTOS. W. Va. 

Exp. Sta. Bui. 213. 

Mellanby, E. 

1921. experimental rickets. 
Med. Ees. Council, Loudon. 

McCollum, E. v., Simmonds, N., Shipley, P. G., and Park, E. A. 

1922. IS THERE A SUBST/S.NCE OTHER THAN FAT-SOLUBLE A ASSOCIATED WITH 
certain FATS, WHICH PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN BONE DEVELOPMENT? 

Jour. Biol. Cliem. 50, 5. 



1925. THE NEWER KNOWLEDGE OF NUTRITION. 
3rd edition, 84. 



192.'5. THE NEWER KNOWLEDGE OF NUTRITION. . • 

3rd edition, 405. 

Osborne, T. E., and ]\rENDEL, L. B. 

1915. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS OF THE INFLUENCE OF NATURAL FATS Ul'ON 
GROWTH. 

Jour. Biol. Chem. 20, 379. 
Steenbock, H., and Boutwell, P. W. 

1920. THE COMPARATIVE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF WHITE AND YELLOW MAIZE. 

Jour. Biol. Cliem. 41, 81. 



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